The study found that small-scale renewables can cause power outages. Although a network with multiple generators should be more reliable than using a single source of energy, in reality, when the generators run at different times, the network does not reach optimal levels of stability, making it prone to failures.
Such a network is unpredictable as generators turn on and off intermittently and daily and seasonal usage and meteorological conditions change. Without new control strategies, these fluctuations were found to put the network at risk of failure.
Batteries are a natural candidate for balancing supply and demand. However, despite the fact that the installation of home batteries increases consumer self-sufficiency, this does little to solve the problem of fault tolerance. It is recommended that the power supply from these batteries be optimized for system stability.
Emerging technologies such as “car-to-grid” promise to balance renewable energy systems and can be used with energy management control systems as virtual power plants. “It is very important that future control schemes take into account the dynamic properties of the network in order to ensure the stability of future power grids,” the study says.
Ideal consumer for hydro-thermal and nuclear power plants
For this type of power plants – generating constant power, ideal consumer – a consumer with constant consumption, when the crest factor is equal to one, i.e. maximum power consumption is equal to the average power consumption. This is, for example, constantly on lighting or a heater that works around the clock.
The average peak is a factor for a residential consumer from 5 to 10. To obtain the minimum crest factor, and hence the maximum possible return of the generated power and minimum losses in the networks, a network inverter with a battery is used in the current (power) consumption control mode from the network. When the load consumes less than the specified level, the difference goes to charge the battery, when the load consumes more than the specified level, the difference is mixed into the load from the battery. So from the network side, your load looks constant.
The figure above shows an example for a 24 hour consumption profile. The average consumption from the network is 2 units, the minimum load consumption is 1 unit, the maximum load consumption is 6 units.
For networks that use generation from wind and solar panels, the consumption profile is more complex and must be set by the network operator based on the weather forecast for wind and solar generation.
The Demand Response energy management system, also known as Ripple Control, is suitable for this task (see the presentation for more details). When the network is overloaded, it turns off the secondary (less relevant) load. But more efficient is the Demand Response -2 Energy Management System, also known as Ripple Control -2, which, when generation exceeds demand, turns on the charge of centralized and local batteries at a minimum cost of electricity, and when demand exceeds generation, it switches the batteries to mixing their energy into the power grid .